Vitamins and the Body. Water-soluble: vitamin C and all B vitamins. Fat-soluble: A, D, E and vitamin K

The body can not themselves provide vitamins, why vitamins are vital substances. A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. The main task of vitamins is to regulate the uptake and digestion of food. There are periodically discovered new vitamins, but currently you have knowledge of 13 different vitamins, and each of them has a specific function. The word vitamin comes from vita (life) and amine (amino acid). If a deficiency in one of the food for a longer period of time will result in deficiency diseases. For example, children who lack vitamin D develop rickets and thereby get the soft bones and typically become bow-legged. And older may, by lack of vitamin D and sunlight developing osteoporosis. Without vitamins, no life. The need to vary from vitamins vitamin vitamins and may be from a few micrograms to several, milligrams per day.

Vitamins are vital organic molecules

Vitamins are typically divided into water soluble (Vitamin B1-9, B12 and C) and fat soluble (Vitamins A, D, K and K). The fat-soluble vitamins absorbed from the diet with fat and accumulate in body fat as opposed to water soluble to be applied to the body every day through food. Some vitamins can be toxic in large quantities, this is especially true of A and vitamin D supplements, but it's very rare that it occurs. For most of us there are enough vitamins in the diet that we eat, but for some it may be necessary with a grant. Some people think that vitamins can replace food or reduce the intake of food, but it is not correct. Vitamins are either calories, proteins, minerals, fat or water, but vitamins are necessary for proper absorption and utilization of these things. A kind of inputs. Lack of a single vitamin can bring the body out of balance. Therefore it is vital that we eat as varied as possible.

About vitamins. Which vitamins are good for what?

There are periodically detected new vitamins. There are certainly still many that we have not found yet. But the ones we know so far is the water-soluble vitamins, vitamin C and all B vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and vitamin K, as described below:

Vitamin A (Retinol). Found in liver, fish liver oil, kidney, milk, butter, margarine, eggs, carrots, kale, apricots and other yellow fruits. Vitamin A is required to skin and mucous membranes to form new cells and to the ocular function. Improves night-vision. Severe lack of vitamin A can lead to infection, night blindness, blindness and ultimately death. The recommended intake of 800 RE for women and 900 RE for men.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). Available in pork, whole grains, peas, eggs, potatoes, fish and dairy products. Vitamin B1 is important for the nervous system. Affects thus also brain and muscle function. Deficiency signs are tingling in fingers and toes which in severe form is called beriberi. Confusion and problems with balance. Decreased appetite, fatigue and difficulty concentrating. The recommended daily intake is 1.4 mg for men and 1.1 mg for women. During pregnancy and lactation increases the need of approximately 0.5 mg per day. day.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). Found in liver, kidney, milk, cheese, eggs, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts, peas, beans. Vitamin B2 is important for growth, skin, nails, hair, sore lips and tongue as well as sight. Turnover of proteins, fats and carbohydrates require Vitamin B2. Deficiency signs are cracked lips, sores on the tongue, skin rashes, itching and irritation of the eyes, oral mucosa, but is rarely seen alone without concomitant deficiency of other vitamins. Recommended daily intake from food is 1.7 mg and 1.3 mg for men and women.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin). Found in fish, meat, whole grains, yeast, milk, cheese, eggs, peas, beans, potatoes. Vitamin B3 is important for growth, skin, nails, hair, sore lips and tongue, and the sight and the turnover of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Deficiency signs are muscle weakness, digestive problems, irritated and chapped skin, pellagra, where symptoms are skin lesion, diarrhea and deterioration of mental functions.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). Found in cabbage, milk, beef, eggs, liver, brewer's yeast and many other foods, especially if they are rich in other B-vitamins, chicken, fish, whole grains, bananas, peas, beans, liver, yeast, eggs, dairy products. Vitamin B6 prevents skin and nervous problems and convulsions. Turnover of proteins and carbohydrates requires Vitamin B6 and the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency signs are skin changes, nervousness, irritability, anemia, sleep problems. The recommended daily dose set to be about 1.2 milligrams per liter. day for females and 1.5 milligrams per liter. day for men.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Found in liver, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish, oysters, yeast. Vegetarians often have a lack of B12. B12 participates in the formation of red and white blood cells and nerve new formation. Deficiency signs are fatigue, nervousness and seclusion. Recommended daily dose for adults is 2.0 micrograms (millionths of a gram) for men and women. Women who are breast-feeding a daily dose of 2.6 micrograms.

Biotin (formerly vitamin H). Biotin is a co-enzyme that aids in the turnover of fat and carbohydrates. Biotin also assists in the production of urea and the reaction of amino acids. Biotin can be found in most foods. There is more biotin in egg yolks, organ meats and some vegetables.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Found in citrus fruits, especially kiwi, rose hips, berries, tomatoes, cauliflower, potatoes and green leafy vegetables. Vitamin C is important for the immune system, protects against viruses and perhaps bacteria, promotes healing, reduces blood cholesterol, natural laxative, strengthens the cells and prevents scurvy. Deficiency signs are fatigue, bleeding gums, slow wound healing, bleeding in the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs, loose teeth, painful joints, susceptibility to infections. Recommended daily dose of vitamin C for adult men and women is 75 mg vitamin C per. day. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should consume respectively 85 and 100 mg. day.

Vitamin D (Kalciferol). Available in fish liver oil, sardines, herring, salmon, tuna, milk, egg yolk. Produced in the skin of solar radiation. Vitamin D is necessary for the body movement of calcium and phosphate, so you have strong bones and teeth. Helps maintain the nervous system and muscle function and blood coagulation. Deficiency signs are tooth decay, osteoporosis, rickets in children. Recommended daily dose is 7.5 micrograms (millionths of a gram) for men and women up to 60 years old, elderly, pregnant and nursing women should consume 10 micrograms per. day. Small children and elderly above 70 years need a higher dose of vitamin D than others. Up to 20 micrograms per day from diet and supplements are advised: persons over 70 years, nursing home residents and persons at increased risk of osteoporosis.

Vitamin E (tocopherol). Vitamin E is a so-called antioxidant that protects the fat in the body at forharske. Vitamin E also protects the body's cells against degradation from harmful substances from fat metabolism. Plant oils, margarine, egg yolk, butter, nuts, fish generally contain large amounts of Vitamin E. Vitamin E in the elderly may stimulate the body's immune system and inhibit the blood's ability to koagulerere (clump). Vitamin E may also inhibit cancer cell development. Deficiency signs are muscle weakness, loss of fertility, but deficiency symptoms may be difficult to detect in humans. The recommended daily dose is for men of 10 mg and for women at 8 mg. Excluded are pregnant or breastfeeding, which should occupy respectively 10 and 11 mg. Since vitamin E is fat soluble, there is a theoretical risk of overdose.

Folic acid (folacin, vitamin B9). Folic acid is found in liver, green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, beans, wholemeal bread, nuts, peas, beans. Contributes to the formation of red and white blood cells and other body cells. Deficiency Signs difficult to trace, but specifically advised pregnant women with previous children born with spina bifida (neural tube) daily 5mg. Recommended daily intake is 300 micrograms for men and women. Excluded are women between 18 and 30 years should consume 400 micrograms daily, and pregnant and lactating recommended a daily intake of 500 micrograms.

Vitamin K (Fyllokinon). The vitamin was named K for coagulation (blood clotting). Lack of vitamin K leads to increased bleeding. It is available as fyllikinon (called vitamin K1) in vegetables. Especially dark green vegetables such as avocados, broccoli, cabbage, spinach and grapes are good sources. Other sources are liver, kidney, dairy products, cereals, meat and fruit. Also helps the bacteria in the intestine by up to half of the required amount of vitamin K in the form of vitamin K2 (menaquinone).

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5). Pantothenic acid has a very central position in metabolism. It is used as building blocks in the fabric Coenzyme A, which is necessary for the combustion of the fat, protein and carbohydrate to generate energy. The vitamin is also included in the production of the adrenal cortical hormones, bile acids, cholesterol and hormones. Pantothenic acid is found in most foods. Meats, whole grains, broccoli, peas and beans are among the best sources.

'Fake Vitamins' are substances that are sometimes called vitamins. They typically have letters P, T, U or B and have different numbers than those mentioned under the water-soluble vitamins. These substances are not proper vitamins.


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