Tumor and Cancer. Can a biopsy determine whether a nodule is benign or malignant - or required a triple test?
A tumor is a condensation of a specific tissue, which may be either benign or malignant tumor. If you have found a change in the body, either in an organ or area of the body, take a biopsy, so that can make a diagnosis. To determine whether a node is benign or malignant, it is necessary to examine the cells from the node in the microscope. Therefore, the doctor gets a little tissue from the node. It is called a tissue sample or biopsy. Investigation and definite diagnosis of a lump in the breast usually includes three stages - a so-called triple test.
Biopsy - a tissue sample
A biopsy is a tissue sample that is taken from a site in the body in order to be able to examine the tissue closer to the microscope (microscopic). The study conducted by a specialist in anatomical pathology (pathologist). There may be compulsory on tissues from breast, skin, a lymph node, a salivary gland, liver, thyroid, larynx, urinary bladder, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, uterus. Within the tissue sample is ready to be examined under the microscope, it must first undergo various chemical processes and embedded in paraffin. Then, the cut into very thin slices are then fitted to the small glass plates and stained. Once the tissue has been examined under the microscope, sent a written reply with a diagnosis of the department (clinic), who commissioned the study. Microscopic examination can reveal if there is cancer, precancerous lesions, or whether it is a benign disorder.
How to take a biopsy?
Taking a biopsy depends on where on the body node sits. The node can sit so that one can insert directly in the skin with a needle. In the case of a node in the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract or the urinary bladder, it is possible to take a biopsy of a so-called endoscopic examination. In the case of a pelvic examination, one can perform a curettage of the uterus or cervix or take a small tissue-piece from the cervix. Samples are examined later under a microscope, where you can see the individual cells, and whether that might have something wrong with them. If there is cancer, you can often see what type of cancer and how advanced the disease is. Reply to a biopsy will usually not be available until several days later.
Biopsy shows whether a nodule is benign or malignant
A biopsy can show whether a lump (tumor), or another change is benign or malignant, ie whether there is cancer or not. In some cases, the biopsy is inconclusive, but gives a suspicion of cancer or show that there is pre-cancerous. In those cases it will be necessary with a new tissue sample, taken by a new biopsy or minor surgery to get denied or confirmed if there are actually talking about cancer. You will typically reply within a week. The various laboratory procedures products from two to three days, and then the samples are examined by microscope. It is often necessary to treat the samples for specific procedures. In most cases it is therefore possible to say, the type of cancer in the case of. However one can not usually determine the type and degree of aggressiveness that is from a biopsy. It is only possible to find this out when the node is removed completely by surgery, so the whole node can be examined.
Most often it is necessary to maintain several different studies before one can diagnose cancer or begin to treat cancer. Some studies can clarify the type of node it is about, while others can show what stage the cancer is at. Among the additional studies that may prove necessary to see if there are signs of cancer, scanning, for example:
- CT scan: This is an X-ray. The scanner sends pulses on to a computer that converts them into images. This forms a series of images of all layers in the part of the body being studied. Using CT scans, doctors can see where and how deep a potential nodule sits.
- MRI: We use a powerful magnetic field, no X-ray radiation by CT scan. The magnetic field is so strong that one can not have metal parts in the body, at least not near the part of the body being scanned. This excludes those metal parts which are not magnetic, such as fillings in your teeth. With MRI might be done examination of the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts, called MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticografi).
- Ultrasound Scanning: Ultrasound is completely harmless sound waves are used to scan the pancreas and surrounding area. On one screen, the physician may check for signs of cancer or not. - Click here to read more about breast cancer >>
Triple test diagnostics give a certain answer
The diagnosis of cancer can not be made permanently if a tissue specimen from the node shown that in the case of cancer. Normally, the answer is quite safe. But no survey method can provide the right answer every time, so sometimes you will get an incomplete answer or an answer that is inconsistent with other findings. If, for example, is about breast cancer, one speaks of a triple test or triple-diagnostics, where the diagnosis is based on three parameters:
- Palpation + mammography + Biopsy
That is, the surgeon's clinical study of the chest in conjunction with the X-ray examination and biopsy response to provide the diagnosis of cancer, they operate within the breast. In the same way, there will also compare the various findings as in the case of other types of cancer. When in doubt, take a new biopsy or unwinding a freezer section survey. Source: Cancer Society