Obesity Weight Loss Surgery. About slimming operations, overweight, obesity and severe obesity.
Obesity is a condition in which the amount of fat in the body is so great that it has consequences for the health. Surgical treatment is currently the only treatment of severe obesity, which can be documented a long-term weight loss and reduction of complications of obesity. Nevertheless, surgical treatment of obesity only considered when conventional therapy has been tried and has proved fruitless, and when the disease has progressed so that it leads to increased morbidity and affects quality of life. Internationally, there is agreement only to offer individuals with obesity class II (obese, BMI> 30) and class III (extreme overweight, BMI> 40) surgical treatment. At the same time before the operation an investigation to uncover whether you as a patient meets the criteria for surgical treatment, and severe obesity (BMI over 30).
Few hospitals performing obesity operations
The need for surgical intervention for obesity is rapidly increasing in the Western world. Health Protection Agency has given the growing demand created a working group to designate additional hospitals where people must be operable. The result of the lean operation is in most cases, a rapid weight reduction. After 18 months to two years the emphasis has stabilized at a new level. This level is maintained by following the designated dietary advice. Obesity Surgery has not been a real breakthrough in Europe. Public hospitals and private hospitals must be approved by the Board of Health to offer obesity surgery. A number of private hospitals, has also signed an agreement to operate warranty patients who have been on the waiting list for obesity surgery in the public health for longer.
Surgical methods: Gastric bypass and Gastric banding
Mostly used two methods, both of which can be carried out with the keyhole (Laparoscopic surgery). The aim of surgery is a permanent weight loss of 60-70% of overweight, which means that the quality of life vital to improve and obesity-related diseases and symptoms reduced. Gastric bypass (GBP), where the principle is to reduce the stomach so that it can only contain small amounts, it will result in future only be consumed small meals. Intake of large meals, this results in discomfort and vomiting. Certain foods are poorly tolerated, such as sugar and fat. And, since most of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine being passed (bypassed), it will reduce absorption of sugar, and fats and thereby reduce caloric uptake. Gastric banding with an adjustable silicone band (ASGB) in which the principle is to pinch the upper part of the stomach with a adjustable silicone band, which leads to rapid saturation and delayed emptying. The tape's diameter may be adjusted (loosen or tighten) via a hose, which is in communication with a small balloon in the patient's anterior abdominal wall. When spraying more liquid in the balloon, tighten the band around the stomach to. An operation typically lasts 1-1½ hours.
Slim Operation and permanent weight loss
Both operations are performed with keyhole surgical technique (laparoscopy), which has the great advantage that the discomfort after surgery decreases much compared to standard open surgical technique. At the same time experience, Gastric bypass (GBP) provides both a significant weight loss and increased patient satisfaction. Generally, the weight reduction is made within 1-2 years with 50-75% of the overweight. Long-term effect of surgical treatment are well documented, and as mentioned best for GBP, leading to the greatest weight loss and doctors regard as the standard by which other operations should be compared. Weight loss results in reduction of any concomitant type 2 diabetes and has a positive effect on quality of life. About 85% of patents with type 2 diabetes who get stomach surgery less, free of diabetes symptoms one week after surgery.
What is required to get an obesity surgery?
Several criteria must be met to be approved for obesity surgery paid for by the public - otherwise you have to pay. For example, one can only searched for obesity surgery paid for by the government if you:
- Is the age of 25 are morbidly obese with a BMI over 35, suffering from complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes or heart problems, severe high blood pressure or documented sleep apnea.
- With extreme obesity with a BMI over 50 without sequelae, in specific cases and specific evaluation set for surgery. BMI> 50 as the only indication in itself is NOT sufficient for operation.
- There is no upper age limit for bariatric surgery, but by scores of patients over age 60 should be exercised with great caution because of the proven increased operative complications, according to guidelines for visitation and referral regarding obesity.
- Furthermore, assuming that you are motivated and ready to change lifestyle, ready to follow special diet before and after surgery and did not suffer from eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia. Prior to an obesity surgery is required eg a weight loss of 8 per cent.
When a patient is prepared for surgery starts the pre-treatment, which is typically of 2-3 months duration. Purpose is to reduce the risks associated with surgery, and mentally and physically prepare patients for surgery and the time after that. It should be emphasized that those mentioned here surgical treatment is not cosmetic surgeries, but operations are designed to reduce or prevent obesity-related diseases and improve survival and quality of life.
Body Mass Index, BMI
For many, a natural question "What is my ideal weight?" Or "How much should I lose?" It is possible to count on their way to a mean ideal weight that is best for most people, both in terms of health and longevity. To find your "ideal weight", you can use what is called BMI, Body Mass Index. BMI test can tell you about the relationship between weight and height, and measure whether you are underweight, normal weight or overweight. - The formula are as follows:
- BMI: weight in kilograms / height in meters x height in meters.
- Example: You weigh 77 kg and is 1.88 m tall.
- The arithmetic is: 77 / 1.88 x 1.88 = 21.78.
Classification of obesity according to World Health Organization, WHO's definitions and health risks at different degrees of obesity in adults:
18.5 to 24.9
30 to 39.9
Depends on the cause of underweight
Medium to strongly increased
Excess weight and waist
If in doubt about the weight due to fat or muscle, it is a good idea to measure waist circumference. It will show where the fat sits on your body. Fat in the abdomen (apple shape) is typically seen in men and is more damaging to health than fat in the buttocks, hips and thighs (pear shape), often seen in women.
- Male's waist circumference should be less than 94 cm
- Female's waist circumference should be less than 80 cm
Waist measurement is a measure of how body fat is distributed on the body, respectively show the apple and pear shape form:
- Apple shape is the most dangerous, because body fat is located around the stomach and thus also about the internal organs. The fat that sits on your stomach (abdominal fat) is dangerous. Abdominal fat is one of the biggest risk factors for developing heart disease and are more dangerous than fat on the hips for example.
- Pear shape is most often seen in women, where fat is located on the thighs and buttocks, which state as such is dangerous.
If the waist for male is greater than 102 cm and for female greater than 88 cm is recommended for reasons of health, that you lose weight, because obesity and severe obesity increases the risk of developing and getting cardiovascular disease.