Neurology. About neurophysiology, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, stroke and nerve disorders

The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and peripheral nervous systems. Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system are all nervous tissue outside the central nervous system. Neurology is the medical specialty which carries out the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and certain muscular diseases. Diseases that may be caused by disorders of nervous system structure and function. Of neurological disorders include, brain hemorrhage and blood clot to the brain (stroke), migraine and other headaches, nerve inflammation, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, fainting, paralysis and sensory disturbances, memory problems and dementia, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, dizziness, tremor (dystonia) and tremor, certain pain conditions such as facial pain, and various walking and movement disorders.

Neurophysiology (Neurology)

Neurophysiology is the medical specialty concerned with nervous system physiology. The diseases of the nervous system can often be difficult to unravel and treat. The neurological examination will usually be extensive and time-consuming and in some cases it is necessary to supplement with other studies eg. diagnostic imaging, blood tests and neurophysiological study. Representations headed by a Neurologist - A specialist who is trained to perform diagnostic, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with neurological and neuro-biological disorders. Disorders of the brain and the rest of the nervous system is responsible for more than 30% of all diseases in the Nordic, but gives rise to more than half of the total losses of disease related quality of life.

Alzheimer's disease and dementia

Dementia is the term for a number of symptoms of declining brain function. It turns out mainly by poor memory and reduced ability to function in everyday life. Dementia is often insidious. In the beginning it can be difficult to determine whether there is disease. Dementia affects mainly older, but younger people can also get the disease. Signs of incipient dementia are: poor memory, decreased ability to function in everyday life and confusion and often behavioral and personality changes among the demented. Emotions as: anxiety, confusion and hopelessness may be predominate. When the disease gets worse, the discomfort disappears among the demented, but the problems are so similar larger in the surroundings.

Dementia Treatment and social consequences

Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause. It causes the nerve cells in several areas of the brain slowly degenerate. This is presumably due to an imbalance of the neurotransmitters. The disease is inherited as a whole. But the risk of getting the disease are greater if your parents had it. If you notice symptoms in themselves or with loved ones, you should talk to his doctor to have studied the cause and start any treatment. As caregivers, avoid situations with many people, much noise and new places. Because it can make the incipient dementia insecure. Without treatment comes dementia within months to years, after which it will soon become necessary, nursing home or other social measures. Dementia is becoming more pronounced, and after 7-10 years leads to the death. Developments in Alzheimer's disease can be delayed by anti-dementia drugs, but not cured. Treatment is usually through specialized and neurological departments after a thorough appraisal. Besides medical treatment, social measures are necessary. Caring for a demented spouse at home is rarely a realistic option.

Stroke (apoplexy)

The patients who neurologist can help are adult patients with stroke and blood clots in the brain, the most common ailments. The term apoplexy or stroke covers both bleeding and blood clot in the brain and is found typically by sudden paralysis of parts of the body. In 85 percent of cases, there is a blood clot and 15 percent on a hemorrhage. Thrombosis affects predominantly older people and can cause permanent injury or death. Symptoms due to certain brain cells do not receive adequate blood supply and either die or stop functioning normally. The symptoms you get depend on which brain cells are affected. The only way to determine if apopleksien caused by a blood clot or a hemorrhage is by doing a CT scan or an MRI of the brain.

Factors that increase risk of thrombosis and bleeding in the brain

Atherosclerosis is the major cause of stroke. When blood vessels become calcified to form blood clots in the vessels supplying the brain with blood. Furthermore, calcified blood vessels more easily crack and cause brain haemorrhage. Hypertension is a major cause of stroke, and it is especially stroke you risk if you have high blood pressure, but it also increases the risk of blood clots. Irregular heartbeat increases the risk of stroke. Diabetes increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby stroke. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of stroke and high consumption of alcohol increases the risk of stroke. Furthermore, the risk of stroke with age.

Typical symptoms of stroke and brain haemorrhage

Typical symptoms are eg

  • paralysis of the arm, leg, face, difficulty speaking, understanding problems, swallowing problems, partial blindness, coordination problems, balance problems and crying that seems inexplicable.

Symptoms often occur suddenly in a matter of minutes. If you come to the hospital immediately after the first signs of apoplexy turns out you can get medication that dissolves blood clots. To give this treatment, you'll have to make sure that apoplexy caused a blood clot, and therefore must have a brain scan as soon as possible. After a stroke you will usually get better by itself the first week, but then must be intensive specialized rehabilitation for that condition will improve. However, there are several examples of good performance even after severe strokes because of strenuous rehabilitation and physiotherapy, which may involve neuro-psychologists, speech therapists, general practitioners and neurologists.

Parkinson's disease (jitters)

Paralysis agitans or jitters affect the brain and causes tremors, stiff muscles and slow movement. The disease develops gradually and may be very different from person to person. Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of diseases (synucleinopatier), characterized by the destruction of several groups of brain cells and the deposition of abnormal proteins in the cells in the brain, the so-called Lewy bodies. Parkinson's disease is relatively frequent and affects about 1 out of 1000. The onset is typically aged between 50 and 70. Men attacked more often than women. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown. The disease is characterized by a general destruction of several groups of cells in the brain in particular comprising cells in the parts of the brain that regulates the movements of finer. Persons with Parkinson's have too little of the signaling substance 'Dopamine' in the brain. Dopamine helps the brain to control muscle movements.

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease

The main symptoms of Parkinson's disease: muscle stiffness, tremor and impaired movement. Muscle stiffness primarily include arms, legs and body. Often there appears a characteristic stiffness in the arms and legs, the doctor discovers example when the diagnosis to be made. This is seen by the arm or leg bent, without that person uses his muscles when you sense alternating resistance and slip, as when one must tighten a rope by means of a pinion (cogwheel rigidity). Tremor is seen especially in the hands, but can also be seen in the legs and head. Tremor can be relatively fast with up to 5 moves per second. If the tremors occur mostly in the fingers, call it pillefingertremor. The reduced mobility means that you generally move slowly. Patients with Parkinson's disease also has a number of other troublesome symptoms to varying degrees such as urinary problems, sleep problems, fatigue, memory problems, mental problems, dizziness and falling trend. There are no specific actions that can prevent Parkinson's disease. However, it is important to maintain an active physical exercise, so that a daily walk is important.

Studies, scanning and diagnosis

The diagnosis made by a specialist in nervous diseases. CT or MRI may be performed as part of this review. In recent years, methods have been developed to examine the amount of dopamine-containing cells in the brain of SPECT and PET imaging. These methods have become more widespread in the diagnosis of Parkinson's, Parkinson plus syndrome and Lewy bodies' dementia. Further study is often complemented by highlighting the other problems, such as investigation of urinary problems, the study of sleep problems at night breathing problems including sleep apnea and nocturnal movement problems, the study of blood pressure. There are no blood tests that can show whether you have Parkinson's disease. Selected: Parkinson's develops gradually and you can have the disease for many years. There is no curative treatment, but medical and other treatment can improve the condition.

Treatment of Parkinson's

Treatment of Parkinson's disease is a specialized task, and the patient should be followed by a neurologist. There are different forms of treatment. Medical treatment, which is among the most effective known treatments. The main principle is to increase the activity of the dopamine system by adding the dopamine-like drugs, reduce the degradation of the natural dopamine, or of the dopamine-like drugs, or reduce the activity of other neurotransmitters. Surgical treatment with the insertion of electrodes in the brain during a surgical procedure in which the physician via a form of pacemaker may stimulate some groups of neurons in the brain has gained increasing interest. Treatment is most effective in Parkinson's disease but have little or no effect in Parkinson's plus syndromes. Physical Activity: If you have Parkinson's should continue to get physical activity, such as going for a walk, as it is important to maintain physical function. Some physical therapy may be an important treatment.


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