Breast cancer. What causes cancer of the breast and how is the disease prognosis?
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. It affects about 1 in 9 women. Every year thousands of women konstatert breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs in all age groups but is most common among older women. Breast cancer is a serious disease and there may be a risk that the cancer spreads from the chest to the rest of the body. The probability of surviving breast cancer is dependent on when in the course of the disease is detected and how much the cancer has metastasized. Generally speaking, the earlier breast cancer is detected, the greater the chance of cure. In recent years there has been new effective treatment options, which gives a much better life chances than before.
Causes of breast cancer?
The risk of getting breast cancer increases significantly with age. The disease is uncommon before age 40. At every other breast cancer tumor patient comes before the person reaches 65 years. It is not unusual that the disease affects women who are older than 80 years. We do not know why the normal cells in a breast develop into cancer cells. We know, however, that several factors increase the risk of developing breast cancer. If these factors are present individually or together, have an increased risk of developing the disease:
- Breast cancer occurs nearly always in women. The risk of getting breast cancer increases with age. Breast cancer is hereditary in about. 5 percent of the cases. The risk of breast cancer is hereditary, is especially present if there are more cases of breast cancer in the same family. The sooner you get her first period and the later you go into menopause, the greater the risk of getting breast cancer. Women who have not borne children or give birth to their first child late in life have an increased risk of breast cancer. Women who have lesions confined to the lumen of the glands or ducts (in situ cancer) are at increased risk of later developing breast cancer (invasive cancer). Use of oral contraceptives and hormone supplements for more than 5-10 years increases the risk of getting breast cancer. Women who have breast cancer in one breast have an increased risk of getting breast cancer in the other breast. Breast cancer occurs more often among women from higher social groups. Increased intake of alcohol increases the risk of getting breast cancer. Source: Cancer Society
Triple Test is recommended for diagnostic evaluation and diagnosis
A triple-test consists of three tests: First, mammography, which has an X-ray image of the breast, then ultrasonic, which is a kind of video. And finally you get any. also took a biopsy - a tissue sample of the suspicious area. It is not considered sufficient with only one test, for example an ultrasound. - Clearing of women with screening detected Abnormalities should be done in clinics that meet the requirements for a diagnostic breast center.
Screening for breast cancer
Breast cancer can be detected by a so-called screening, in which women between 50 and 69 every two years offered a mammogram - an X-ray of the chest. X-ray examination can reveal changes in the breast down to a few millimeters, which you can not feel with your fingers. The earlier cancer is detected the change, the greater the likelihood that the cancer has not spread, and thus can be cured. Mammography screening is not yet an offer for all women. However, offers a number of private hospitals screening without the wait. Studies carried out by a specialist in radiology with particular experience in mammography and using modern scanning equipment. For disease severity must be assessed to the tumor examined directly.
Benign or malignant nodule?
One can only determine if a node is benign or malignant by examining the node in a microscope. Therefore, a sample from the node. This is called a cell sample, tissue sample or a biopsied. Here are several possibilities: fine needle biopsy, frovnålsbiopsi and removal of the entire node. Knowledge of tumor size, way to grow is also crucial when it comes to assessing the prognosis and choice of treatment after surgery. Samples taken in the armpit can show whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes. - Click to read more about tissue samples >>
Staging of cancer
If you find a lump in your breast, you should go to the doctor. Will the doctor suspect that it may relate to cancer, one should refer for further investigation on the local thoracic surgical center. If there is cancer, it is necessary to get an overview of the nature of the disease and spread to select treatment. This is called stage dividing cancer. Staging of the disease is important to choose the most appropriate treatment. It could also say something about the likelihood of cure. We distinguish between two groups of breast cancer patients: low risk and high risk group. Which group you belong to depends on how widespread the disease is and where malignant cancer cells look under a microscope. The division has an impact on what treatment you are offered.
You are at low risk, if you meet all the following conditions: The disease has not spread to lymph nodes in the armpit. The knot is no more than two centimeters in diameter. The knot is not aggressive (malignancy grade). The knot is sensitive to estrogen (estrogen receptor positive). One has over 35 years. If you belong to low risk, you are usually not offered medical treatment after surgery because the risk for the disease returning are very small.
High Risk Group
This group is called high-risk group because there is a greater risk of disease returning after you have received treatment. The group consists of patients whose disease has one or more of the following characteristics: The disease has spread to lymph nodes in the armpit. Tumor greater than two centimeters in diameter. The knot is aggressive (malignancy grade II-III). The knot is not as susceptible to estrogen (estrogen receptor negative). You are 35 years or younger. If you are at high risk, you will be offered medical treatment after surgery to reduce the risk of disease returning.
Prognosis Breast Cancer
Large groups of patients with breast cancer have a good or relatively good prognosis. For these, it is meaningful to talk about both the 10 and 15 year survival after diagnosis. Thousands of women alive today after being operated on for breast cancer and no signs of the disease is still active. Many thousands of women live also with active breast cancer. About 3% of all deaths among women based on breast cancer.
Those who are diagnosed with breast cancer suffer from a more or less severe crisis response. The threat of having to die is often the worst but the reaction also tends to be characterized by the horror of pain and how it must feel after the surgery. If emergency response is not worked, depression and anxiety can ensue. Most do, however, without any serious psychological symptoms. Severe depression and anxiety can be treated effectively.